Recent Publications Carnetsoft

Recent publications with research that used the Carnetsoft research simulator software

Below is a list of recent examples of scientific publications with research that has applied the Carnetsoft research simulator:


  • Manuel Seet, Andrei Dragomir, Jonathan Harvy, Nitish V. Thakor, Anastasios Bezerianos. Objective assessment of trait attentional control predicts driver response to emergency failures of vehicular automation, Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 168, 2022, 106588.
  • Mack, M., Stojan, R., Bock, O., & Voelcker-Rehage, C. (2022). Cognitive-Motor Multitasking in Older Adults: A Randomized Controlled Study on the Effects of Individual Differences on Training Success. Research Square.


  • Babić D., Babić D., Fiolić M., Ružić M. (2021) Effect of Different Stop Sign Configurations on Driving Speed When Approaching a Rural Intersection at Night-Time. In: Petrović M., Novačko L. (eds) Transformation of Transportation. EcoProduction (Environmental Issues in Logistics and Manufacturing). Springer, Cham.
  • Lehman et al.  The impact of postbariatric hypoglycaemia on driving performance: A randomized, single-blind, two-period, crossover study in a driving simulator. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, 2021, 23, 9, 2189-2193.
  • Yahoodik S, Samuel S, Yamani Y. Ethical Decision Making Under Time Pressure: An Online Study. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting. 2021;65(1):601-605. doi:10.1177/1071181321651166
  • Darko Babić, Dario Babić, Matus Sucha, Veronika Stanić, Mikulas Toman, The influence of music genres on the driving behaviour of young drivers and their visual scanning of the environment,
    Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, Volume 81, 2021, Pages 396-407
  • Hong, S.; Baek, H.J. Drowsiness Detection Based on Intelligent Systems with Nonlinear Features for Optimal Placement of Encephalogram Electrodes on the Cerebral Area. Sensors 202121, 1255.
  • Stojan, Robert, and Claudia Voelcker-Rehage. “Neurophysiological correlates of age differences in driving behavior during concurrent subtask performance.” NeuroImage 225 (2021): 117492.
  • Otmar Bock, Robert Stojan, Konstantin Wechsler, Melanie Mack, Claudia Voelcker-Rehage, Distracting tasks have persisting effects on young and older drivers’ braking performance,
    Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 161, 2021, 106363
  • Pilar Tejero, Javier Roca, Messages beyond the phone: Processing variable message signs while attending hands-free phone calls,
    Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 150, 2021, 105870


  • Jo, S., Lee, S.H., Jang, S.W. et al. Time taken to resume driving following hip arthroscopy. BMC Musculoskelet Disord 21, 643 (2020).
  • M. Seet, J. Harvy, R. Bose, A. Dragomir, A. Bezerianos and N. Thakor, “Differential Impact of Autonomous Vehicle Malfunctions on Human Trust,” in IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems, doi: 10.1109/TITS.2020.3013278.
  • Schuch S, Bock O, Freitag K, Moretti L. Cognitive Multitasking: Inhibition in Task Switching Depends on Stimulus Complexity. J Cogn. 2020 Sep 29;3(1):30. doi: 10.5334/joc.115. PMID: 33043240; PMCID: PMC7528661.
  • Mai Mariam Mohamed Aminuddin, Haslinah Modh Nasir. (2020). Does Music Help to Stay Focus on the Road? WSEAS TRANSACTIONS on ACOUSTICS and MUSIC . DOI: 10.37394/232019.2020.7.1
  • Bock, O., Drescher, U., van Winsum, W., Kesnerus, T. F., & Voelcker-Rehage, C. (2020). A Virtual-Reality Approach for the Assessment and Rehabilitation of Multitasking Deficits. In Management Association, I. (Ed.), Learning and Performance Assessment: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications (pp. 800-811). IGI Global. http://doi:10.4018/978-1-7998-0420-8.ch037
  • Young, Gareth et al. “Designing Mid-Air Haptic Gesture Controlled User Interfaces for Cars.” Proceedings of the ACM on Human-Computer Interaction 4.EICS (2020): 1–23. Crossref. Web.
  • Laura Broeker,  Mathias Haeger, Otmar Boc, Bettina Kretschmann, Harald Ewolds, Stefan Künzell, Markus Raab, (2020). How visual information infuences dual‑task driving and tracking. Experimental Brain Research 238:675–687
  • Tejero, P., Pi-Ruano, M. & Roca, J. Better read it to me: Benefits of audio versions of variable message signs in drivers with dyslexia. Ann. of Dyslexia (2020).
  • Babić, D.; Babić, D.; Cajner, H.; Sruk, A.; Fiolić, M. Effect of Road Markings and Traffic Signs Presence on Young Driver Stress Level, Eye Movement and Behaviour in Night-Time Conditions: A Driving Simulator Study. Safety 20206, 24.
  • Lindov O., Omerhodžić A. (2020) New Technologies for Improving Driver Response Efficiency in Risk Prevention from Traffic Environment. In: Karabegović I. (eds) New Technologies, Development and Application III. NT 2020. Lecture Notes in Networks and Systems, vol 128. Springer, Cham.


  • Bock, O., Wechsler, K., Koch, I. et al. Dual-task interference and response strategies in simulated car driving: impact of first-task characteristics on the psychological refractory period effect. Psychological Research (2019) doi:10.1007/s00426-019-01272-5
  • Pilar Tejero, Beatriz Insa, Javier Roca, Reading Traffic Signs While Driving: Are Linguistic Word Properties Relevant in a Complex, Dynamic Environment?, Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, Volume 8, Issue 2, 2019, Pages 202-213, ISSN 2211-3681,
  • Bethan Hannah Topliss, Sanna M. Pampel, Gary Burnett, and Joseph L. Gabbard. 2019. Evaluating Head-Up Displays across Windshield Locations. In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Automotive User Interfaces and Interactive Vehicular Applications (AutomotiveUI ’19). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 244-253. DOI:
  • Züger, Thomas; Lehmann, Vera; Kraus, Mathias; Feuerriegel, Stefan; Kowatsch, Tobias; Wortmann, Felix; Laimer, Markus; Fleisch, Elgar & Stettler, Christoph, 2019. HEADWIND: Design and Evaluation of a Vehicle Hypoglycemia Warning System in Diabetes – A Proof of Principle Study,Swiss Society of Endocrinology and Diabetology Annual Meeting 2019 (SGED)
  • van Winsum, W. (2019). A Threshold Model For Stimulus Detection In The Peripheral Detection Task. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 65, 485-502,
  • van Winsum, W. (2019). The effects of optic flow on peripheral detection performanceTransportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 62, 626-636.
  • van Winsum, W. (2019). Optic flow and tunnel vision in the Detection Response TaskHuman Factors, 61(6), 992–1003. See here for the full article of the peer reviewed and accepted version.
  • Tejero, P., Insa, B., & Roca, J. (2019). Difficulties of Drivers With Dyslexia When Reading Traffic Signs: Analysis of Reading, Eye Gazes, and Driving Performance. Journal of Learning Disabilities,52(1), 84-95.
  • J. Harvy, N. Thakor, A. Bezerianos and J. Li, “Between-Frequency Topographical and Dynamic High-Order Functional Connectivity for Driving Drowsiness Assessment,” in IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 358-367, March 2019. doi: 10.1109/TNSRE.2019.2893949.




  • D. Tran, E. Tadesse, W. Sheng, Y. Sun, M. Liu and S. Zhang, “A driver assistance framework based on driver drowsiness detection,” 2016 IEEE International Conference on Cyber Technology in Automation, Control, and Intelligent Systems (CYBER), Chengdu, 2016, pp. 173-178. doi: 10.1109/CYBER.2016.7574817.
  • Super, S; Aminuddin, M. M. M. Practicability of Meaningful Sound to Avoid Attention-Drifting Phenomenon While Driving. Advanced Science Letters, Volume 22, Number 9, September 2016, pp. 2138-2140(3)
  • T. Hwang, M. Kim, S. Hong and K. S. Park, “Driver drowsiness detection using the in-ear EEG,” 2016 38th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC), Orlando, FL, 2016, pp. 4646-4649. doi: 10.1109/EMBC.2016.75917.
  • More information about academic work can be found on ResearchGate…….

Examples of earlier publications

The scenario generation, traffic generation, data analyses and storage and real time simulation software is based on the research simulator software that was developed in the 90ties at the University of Groningen. A number of examples of publications based on an earlier version of this simulator software:

  • Van Winsum. W., (1998). Preferred time headway in car-following and individual differences in perceptual-motor skills. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 87, 863-873.
  • van Winsum. W., de Waard, D. & Brookhuis, K.A. (1999). Lane change manoeuvres and safety margins. Transportation Research Part F 2(1999), 139-149.
  • van Winsum. W., Brookhuis, K.A. & de Waard, D. (1999). A comparison of different ways to approximate Time-to-Line Crossing (TLC) during car driving. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 32, 57-56.
  • Van Winsum, W. & Brouwer, W. (1997). Time headway in car following and operational performance during unexpected braking.Perceptual and Motor Skills, 84, 1247-1257.
  • Van Winsum, W. & Heino, A. (1996). Choice of time-headway in car-following and the role of time-to-collision information in braking. Ergonomics, 39(4), 579-592.
  • Van Winsum, W. & Godthelp, H. (1996). Speed choice and steering behavior in curve driving. Human Factors, 38(3), 434-441.

Since then this driving simulator software has been extended and especially  the graphics has been improved substantially . It has laid the groundworks for numerous scientific publications by researchers all over the world.